In the mid 1800s, the Texas Rangers developed the Ranger Belt. It was designed so that they could carry a large, heavy sidearm, usually the Colt Walker, which had a holster that required a wide belt.
Prior to this, the Rangers carried long guns and belts were not commonly used.
From True West Magazine: “The six-gun’s heft made impractical the common practice of stuffing a pistol into the waistband of the bearer’s pants, or into a cloth sash tied around the waist or hips meant to secure pistols, knives and other means of self-defense. Belts were not in common use at the time as pants were high-waisted and tightened with a cinch at the back, or supported with suspenders over the wearer’s shoulders. Thus, these Colts were carried in holsters mounted on saddles.”
By making a wide stiff belt but with narrower, more flexible billet straps in the front, the holster and heavy gun would be supported but the fastening of the belt would be easier. Because of the wide belt underneath the billets, the belt could be tightened without pinching because of the protective underlayer.
The belt design employed the same technique used for tightening horse cinches without pinching.
A more modern variation of the Ranger Belt is the Tapered Belt that starts with a standard belt and tapers the buckle end and the tip end to a narrower width, usually 3/4″
The Ranger Belt or Tapered Belt will allow easy change if they come with 3 sets of snaps, one to attach the buckle and one each for the two keepers.
To set the tip, simply punch a hole in the leather in alignment with the position of the peg in the tip and slip the leather in, lock it in place. The 1-3 series below uses the scrap leather than comes with the set to show how it is done. Photo #4 below shows a finished belt tip.
The term Seafoam Turquoise does not refer to a mine or location where certain turquoise is found.
Rather it refers to two visual characteristics that turquoise nuggets might have. The turquoise could come from any number of mines.
Seafoam refers to both color and shape.
Here is a slide show with examples of the color seafoam, used to describe interior paint, linens and clothing among other things. Although the colors vary, you can see the sea in all of them!
Below is what the shape of seafoam can look like, but it varies considerably. It is meant to look like the configuration of bubbling foam at the seaside, so bumpy turquoise in the seafoam color.
For beads, the nuggets are not cut, but left in their natural shape.
If to be mounted such as on the vintage necklace below, the back of the seafoam nugget is flattened but the top is left bumpy.
I love snake eye jewelry and when I use the term I have found that even long-time Native American jewelry enthusiasts don’t know what I mean.
Snake eye is a technique of setting very small spherical pieces of turquoise. It is somewhat related to petit point and needle point but different in shape and much smaller.
Although these techniques began with Zuni artists around 1930-1940, today they are associated with both Zuni and Navajo jewelers.
All 3 techniques use cabochons, which are small stones that have been rounded on top (not faceted) and polished. It is the shape that differs.
Here is where a picture is worth a thousand words. Some examples……..first of PETIT POINT – teardrop shaped – round on one end, pointed on the other.
NOW ON TO NEEDLEPOINT – long and narrow, pointed on both ends.
And finally to SNAKE EYE – the reason for this post in the first place. Spherical. These can range from small to tiny. Here are several examples of snake eye jewelry in various sizes.
So now that you are an expert, what would you call the ones in the photos below?
What mine is this turquoise from?
If I had a nickel for every time I have been asked that question or have seen someone ask it on a group or forum, well, if I saved up all those nickels, I might be able to buy one of these gorgeous pieces !!
But seriously, people want to know. And the answer is……… Sometimes it is fairly straightforward and sometimes the difference between stones from various mines is a bit more fuzzy.
I have seen trays of stones from one particular mine, for example Bisbee below, that range widely in color, matrix, density and hardness – from blue to green and everything in between, with honey to black matrix and from somewhat crumbly to super hard.
With that said, there are certain mines that tend to produce stones that have a certain LOOK to them and can be identified with a fair degree of certainty.
Here is a vintage Bisbee bracelet – gorgeous stones. Note how one has turned a little green over the years – this is one sign of a natural turquoise stone as it ages………or it could have been a little greener stone to start with.
Bisbee turquoise was a by-product of copper mining near Bisbee, Arizona. It is known mainly for its brilliant blue color and smoky webbing. Bisbee turquoise was found at all levels of the copper mine from 100 to 2000 feet and the quality and coloration varies widely from layer to layer. Often the stones have a matrix of brown, gray or black, but clear stones of blues and greens have also come from the Bisbee mine. There was never that much turquoise mined in Bisbee to begin with and now the mine is closed. What remains today is in the hands of old miners and long-time collectors. Because of its hardness, quality and scarcity Bisbee turquoise is one of the most valued turquoise in the world today.
Here are some other articles on our website and on this blog with turquoise mine information.
When this piece arrived in an estate lot several years ago, I fell in love with it immediately – purely for its design and symbolism. I didn’t even look at the back – just thought it was an extraordinary piece.
Then I turned it over…..and………thought………..could it be?
I started googling and soon had a strong feeling this could be a piece by Hopi legend Charles Loloma.
Sonwai is the artistic name used by Verma Nequatewa. Verma began working with her uncle, the late Charles Loloma, in the mid-1960’s and continued working with him until his studio closed in the early 1990’s. At that time, she opened her own studio and has been continuing his teachings through her own jewelry.
Here is the reply I received from Bob Rhodes in response to my photos and email to Verma : “The pendant has a tufa-cast back and inlay of turquoise, lapis lazuli, coral and ironwood. It is difficult to see the detail in the photo, so I may have missed something.
The piece represents what Charles called a “Badger Hand.” Charles was Badger clan and this is his concept of a combination of badger paw and human hand. It was most likely made at the Loloma Studio at Hotevilla, AZ in the late 1960’s or early 1970’s. At that time he often did not differentiate between turquoise from different mines. He had a wash basin that he put all sorts of turquoise in, then picked pieces out for different colors and shapes. He did only use natural, not treated, turquoise, so some of the stones will “mature” or change color as they are exposed to light, air and skin oils. What you have is a very representational piece of Loloma jewelry of that time period. ”
They appreciated the photos as they are collecting as many as they can of Charles Loloma’s pieces.
Charles Loloma (1921-1991) was an active Hopi artist from 1949-1991. He is one of the most innovative and influential Native American artists of his time. He used many techniques including tufa casting, lost wax casting, stone and wood inlay, and cobblestone.
Although he was also a painter and ceramicist, he is most well known for his jewelry.
This badger paw pendant is an example of the high stone-to-stone inlay he became so well-known for.
According to Loloma himself, “I am not versed in the exact date that I started working in jewelry, but my guess is it was in 1947 when I was a student at Alfred University. I was working in pottery and silver.”
In the mid 1950s Loloma moved to Scottsdale, Arizona and began making jewelry in earnest.
The name Loloma translates to “many beautiful colors” which is certainly evident in his work. He broke from the tradition of solely using turquoise and coral by adding unusual stones of bright color as well as fossilized ivory and imported woods such as iron wood.
Much has been written about Charles Loloma – see Southwestern Indian Jewelry, Crafting New Traditions by Dexter Cirillo.
Buttons on Native American dresses, shirts. leggings and moccasins were originally of bone, shell, stone and other natural materials.
In the mid 1800’s, a few Navajo began to learn the art of silversmithing from Mexican plateros.
To learn more on that, read my article Where did Navajo silversmiths learn their craft?
Early silver beads and buttons were made from coins. Later when silver and sterling silver were more available, buttons were made from ingots and sheet silver.
Early buttons from about 1870 were round, flat and with two holes like conventional buttons. Plain domed silver buttons were made soon thereafter.
Buttons were originally for fastening garments but soon became more ornamental and even were used as a trade item. Navajo Indian agent John H. Bowman observed in 1886 “When they wish to buy anything and have no wool to exchange, they simply cut off the needed number of buttons. These vary in value from 2 1/2 cents to $1 – and are never refused as legal tender in this vicinity.”
With access to more diverse tools in the late 1800s and early 1900s, hand-made buttons were domed, filed, etched, fluted, stamped and a loop would be forge-soldered onto the back.
Stones were added about 1900.
See the end of this article for several book excerpts that show button-making techniques.
When button production became mechanized (die cut and machine stamped) hand-made buttons which were labor intensive couldn’t compete price-wise so fewer were made. That’s why hand-made Navajo buttons are fairly scarce.
Enter button covers………………
The 1970s Native American jewelry boom (see my article The 1970s Native American Jewelry Boom) and the popularity of southwestern and western style dress beginning in the 1980s brought us the tourist version of the Native American button – the button cover – a clever system that could be slipped over and clasped to any button to dress up a shirt or dress. Instant Urban Cowboy !
The hinged fasteners are machine made of plated steel or stainless steel.
The design portion or button cover top is usually made of sterling silver. They can be Native American hand-made or commercially machine made.
Since most buttons and button covers do not have hallmarks, it requires experience and a good eye to recognize design styles and see details under magnification to determine whether the button tops are hand made or machine made.
BOOK EXCERPTS SHOWING HOW BUTTONS ARE MADE