Book Review: Zuni – The Art and the People

Zuni, The Art and the People
Three Volume Set

 

These historic Zuni books show Zuni artists and their works circa the 1960s and 1970s. A valuable resource for any Native American jewelry lover or collector. These books have never been reprinted so they have been out of print for over 40 years. They are scarce, especially Volume 3.

I’ve posted the index pages from all three volumes below so you can see the names of the artists that are covered in each book.

Volume 1 Index

Volume 2 Index

Volume 3 Index

 

Published by
Squaw Bell Traders
Grants, New Mexico
Vol 1 -1975, 80 pages
Vol 2 – 1976, 62 pages
Vol 3 – 1977, 72 pages

  • 8 x 10 3/4″ hardbound
  • Full color on all pages per sample photos below.

Paula

Book Review – Native American and Southwestern Silver Hallmarks by Bille Hougart

Native American jewelry enthusiasts, collectors, wholesalers and retailers alike often refer to Bille Hougart’s book (Native American and Southwestern Silver Hallmarks, Third Edition) as the “bible” and the most useful book on identifying Native American hallmarks.

This 7″ x 10″ fat paperback has 517 pages.

The bulk of the book, pages 34-416, consists of an alphabetical (usually by last name) list of artists. In many cases there is a photo of the hallmark along with biographical information such as tribal affiliation, birth date, types of jewelry usually made, family member of note and more.

 

Example of interior pages

There is a 10 page section in the front of the book that discusses the history and function of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board.

Following there are discussions of:

The Hopi Silver Craft Guild

The Navajo Arts and Crafts Guild

United Indian Traders Association

The back matter contains an alphabetical listing of marks. This list is of the actual marks, different from the body of the book which is alphabetical by artists’ last names. This makes several ways to find who a mark belongs to.

Then there is 42 page section of symbol marks by category such as Paws, Sun etc.

To complete this essential work, there is a

Glossary

Acronym List

Bibliography

Useful Addresses

and an index.

If you have interest in Native American jewelry and need to identify hallmarks, this book is essential.

Paula

Dragonfly and the Isleta Cross

About the Isleta Cross

Also called the Pueblo Cross, the Isleta Cross is a very old Pueblo design associated with the Isleta Pueblo. The double-bar cross design is said to have originated with the Moors and Spaniards.

To the Pueblo Indians the double-bar cross was very similar to the dragonfly symbol of their culture, so many Puebloans incorporated the Isleta cross in their jewelry. By the early twentieth century, Pueblo artisans made elegant necklaces with a large central cross as a pendant and smaller crosses along the sides interspersed with beads.

Many crosses of Spanish and Mexican origin as well as Isleta crosses have a heart or a partial heart at the bottom. This is sometime referred to as the “bleeding heart”. In the Catholic Church, the Sacred Heart (the pierced and bleeding heart) alludes to the manner of Jesus’ death and represents Christ’s goodness and charity through his wounds and ultimate sacrifice. However it has been said that the reason the Puebloans put a heart on the bottom of their crosses was for other reasons. They felt it represented the big generous heart of the dragonfly who loved the people. Also, the Pueblo women were said to like the crosses with the hearts on the bottom better, so it could have simply been a case of fashion preference.

The Isleta Pueblo is located in central New Mexico, on the east bank of the Rio Grande south of Albuquerque. It is on the same site as when it was discovered in 1540. It was the seat of the Franciscan mission of San Antonio de Isleta from approximately 1621 until the Pueblo revolt of 1680. The Spaniards captured the pueblo in 1681. In the late 1700’s, when Isleta was repopulated with native peoples, it became the mission of San Agustín de Isleta. Tiwa, a Tanoan language, is the tongue of the Isleta Pueblo.

Read more about Pueblo here What does Pueblo mean?

About the Dragonfly

The dragonfly is associated with many Native American tribes but most notably those of the southwest beginning with early HOHOKAM and MIMBRES depictions on pottery. Early Puebloans and many contemporary southwest artists have continued the tradition.

from Heart of the Dragonfly by Allison Bird

Mimbres reproduction Dragonfly AD 1250 Site Mimbres Valley New Mexico

 

Dragonfly represents rain and its life-giving force, a source of renewal for the land, plants, animals and thus allows human life.

from Landscape of the Spirits: Hohokam Rock Art at South Mountain Park By Todd W. Bostwick, Peter Krocek

1000 year old dragonfly-petroglyph photo by bryan-pfeiffer – click photo to learn more……………

 

From Rock Art Symbols by Alex Patterson

The dragonfly inspires spiritually and creatively and helps us on the path of discovery and enlightenment.

It spiritually embodies the stripping away all negativity that holds us back, helping us to achieve our dreams and goals.

Dragonfly is the keeper of dreams, the energy within that sees all of our true potential and ability. Dragonfly reminds us that anything is possible.

If you have ever seen a dragonfly’s wings glisten in the sunlight you can see why they have inspired jewelers. And how their intricately colored bodies would lead to works of stone inlay.

It is no wonder that contemporary Zuni, Hopi, Navajo and other southwest silversmiths create many beautiful dragonfly pieces.

Paula

 

What are Ranger Belts and Ranger Buckle Sets ?

In the mid 1800s, the Texas Rangers developed the Ranger Belt. It was designed so that they could carry a large, heavy sidearm, usually the Colt Walker, which had a holster that required a wide belt.

Texas Ranger Cpl. J. Walter Durbin (at right) said he had some 15 good men in Company D, though a few could be a “little fussy and dangerous” when drinking. Private Wood Saunders (at left) measured up splendidly—on both counts. This is one of my favorite photos because it shows how both Rangers carried their six-shooter Colts just forward of the hip, butt to the front, easily permitting a strong-hand cross draw. Courtesy Nita Stewart Haley Memorial Library & J. Evetts Haley History Center and True West Magazine

Prior to this, the Rangers carried long guns and belts were not commonly used.

From True West Magazine: “The six-gun’s heft made impractical the common practice of stuffing a pistol into the waistband of the bearer’s pants, or into a cloth sash tied around the waist or hips meant to secure pistols, knives and other means of self-defense. Belts were not in common use at the time as pants were high-waisted and tightened with a cinch at the back, or supported with suspenders over the wearer’s shoulders. Thus, these Colts were carried in holsters mounted on saddles.”

By making a wide stiff belt but with narrower, more flexible billet straps in the front, the holster and heavy gun would be supported but the fastening of the belt would be easier. Because of the wide belt underneath the billets, the belt could be tightened without pinching because of the protective underlayer.

The belt design employed the same technique used for tightening horse cinches without pinching.

There is an underlayer of heavy leather under each ring that the latigo passes through, therefore no pinching when cinching up !

 

A modern ranger belt ready to dress up with a Native American buckle set.

A more modern variation of the Ranger Belt is the Tapered Belt that starts with a standard belt and tapers the buckle end and the tip end to a narrower width, usually 3/4″

The Ranger Belt or Tapered Belt will allow easy change if they come with 3 sets of snaps, one to attach the buckle and one each for the two keepers.

Tapered belt with 3 sets of snaps for Ranger Buckle Set

Kingman Inlay Ranger Buckle set by Zuni artist Stanford Coochi – shown on a Tapered Belt

To set the tip, simply punch a hole in the leather in alignment with the position of the peg in the tip and slip the leather in, lock it in place. The 1-3 series below uses the scrap leather than comes with the set to show how it is done. Photo #4 below shows a finished belt tip.

1 – The backside of the tip showing the peg

2 – Punch a hole in the same position as the peg

3 – Slip the Leather tip into the sterling tip, locking the hole onto the peg

4 – Finished belt tip for the belt below, back side

Sterling Silver Ranger Buckle set by Navajo artist Lee Charley – shown on a Tapered Belt

Paula

What does “snake eye” refer to in Native American jewelry?

I love snake eye jewelry and when I use the term I have found that even long-time Native American jewelry enthusiasts don’t know what I mean.

Snake eye is a technique of setting very small spherical pieces of turquoise. It is somewhat related to petit point and needle point but different in shape and much smaller.

Although these techniques began with Zuni artists around 1930-1940, today they are associated with both Zuni and Navajo jewelers.

All 3 techniques use cabochons, which are small stones that have been rounded on top (not faceted) and polished. It is the shape that differs.

Here is where a picture is worth a thousand words. Some examples……..first of PETIT POINT – teardrop shaped – round on one end, pointed on the  other.

Petit Point stick barrette by Navajo Zeita Begay, contemporary

Petit Point set by Phillip and Virginia Byjoe – Navajo, Vintage

Petit Point Cuff by Johnny Mike Begay, Navajo, Vintage

NOW ON TO NEEDLEPOINT – long and narrow, pointed on both ends.

Needle Point Zuni Bracelet and Ring by EVA L WYACO, contemporary

Needle Point barrette by Nathaniel Nez – Navajo, contemporary

And finally to SNAKE EYE – the reason for this post in the first place. Spherical.  These can range from small to tiny. Here are several examples of snake eye jewelry in various sizes.

Large Snake Eye – Ring by Elanda Wyaco – Zuni, vintage

Medium Snake Eye – Bolo by Bernall Natewa, Zuni, vintage

Tiny Snake Eye – Link bracelet by Stephen Haloo, Zuni, contemporary

So now that you are an expert, what would you call the ones in the photos below?

Paula

 

Zuni Artist Jack Weekoty

bol72-cluster-turq-weekoty-1

Jack Weekoty (also spelled Weekooty) was a Zuni artist born in 1916.

He produced jewelry from 1945-1975.

bol72-cluster-turq-weekoty-2 bol72-cluster-turq-weekoty-4

His hallmark, as shown in the photo below, is JW with a design around it that looks like a little shed with a roof and walls however some have interpreted the design as clouds and rain.

bol72-cluster-turq-weekoty-5

This is important because a more contemporary Navajo artist, Juliana Williams, also uses the JW hallmark but without the design around the initials.

Paula

Libert Peyketewa – Zuni Needlepoint

Needlepoint Set by Libert Peyketewa

Needlepoint Set by Libert Peyketewa

I had a wonderful chat with Libert Peyketewa’s son, Clybert Peyketewa, and here is what he told me, which is somewhat at odds with what is stated in the hallmark books:

“Clybert’s father, the late Libert Peyketewa, was taught needlepoint and silverwork by his father and mother, LaVern Peyketewa and Victoria Amasoila. When Libert married, he taught his wife Carol the stone work while he continued to do the silverwork. After Libert passed away, his wife never remarried and and discontinued the jewelry making. Clybert figures this set was made in the late 1980s.

Libert Peyketewa's hallmark

Libert Peyketewa’s hallmark

“Most Libert Peyketewa sets we’ve seen have only two or maybe three pieces. This is a rare set that has four pieces. Color of necklace, bracelet and earrings matches very well, the ring is a bit more green.

S441-needle-turq-peyketewa-necklace-2 S441-needle-turq-peyketewa-necklace-7 S441-needle-turq-peyketewa-necklace-8

S441-needle-turq-peyketewa-bracelet-1 S441-needle-turq-peyketewa-bracelet-3 S441-needle-turq-peyketewa-earrings-1

From page 39 Who's Who in Zuni Jewelry

From page 39 Who’s Who in Zuni Jewelry

Paula

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